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by Maureen A. Taylor

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# Sunday, June 29, 2014
World War I Women
Posted by Maureen

June 28 is recognized as the 100th anniversary of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which triggered beginning of World War I a month later. The United States didn't formally enter the war until April 6, 1917.

womens land army.jpg

When men enlisted in the service and left their jobs, women stepped in to take their places.

The Women's Land Army formed in 1917 so that women could fill the agricultural jobs vacated by men. This poster was for a training school that prepared women for work as farmerettes. It shows women wearing shawl- collared dresses with pants underneath.  On their legs and feet are leggings and footwear similar to what their menfolk wore in uniform.

Women participated in the war by serving in the Red Cross overseas, by filling clerical positions, working in the fields and acting as recruiters. In family photo collections are black paper photo albums that document these women's lives. 

I've seen images of women in the Red Cross but not these farmerettes.  If you have one, I'd love to see it—click here to email me. I did a Google Image search and found great photos of women and girls being farmers including this one of Girl Scouts harvesting crops.

The Women's Land Army lasted until 1921 and was re-established during World War II.

According to Wikipedia, women who participated lived primarily in the West and Northeast, and many were college educated, because their colleges and universities formed groups. Many of these women also supported the suffrage movement.

The fashion effects of World War I were felt in the United States long before the Americans went to Europe and changed the way men and women dressed.
  • military-styled clothing became fashionable.
  • large oversize coats like those worn by soldiers were commonly seen.
  • sailor-style and shawl-collared dresses and shirts for women can date a photo to this time frame. 
  • By the end of the war, women began cutting their hair shorter causing angst among the male population. 

This centennial of the start of World War I is a great time to research your WWI ancestors. See our WWI research guides for soldiers and women in the July/August 2014 Family Tree Magazine.
 


Solve your family photo mysteries with these books by Maureen A. Taylor:

  • Family Photo Detective: Learn How to Find Genealogy Clues in Old Photos and Solve Family Photo Mysteries
  • Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats 1840-1900
  • Preserving Your Family Photographs
  • Fashionable Folks: Hairstyles 1840-1900
  • Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album

  • 1910s photos | World War I
    Sunday, June 29, 2014 5:22:59 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
    # Sunday, June 22, 2014
    Solving Old Photo Mysteries: Clues in Curls
    Posted by Maureen

    Eunice Amelia Paulk[4].jpg
    Eunice Amelia Paulk (1842-1913)

    Jana Last knows a lot about her ancestor Eunice. She was born in Ohio, lived in Washington, Iowa, and eventually moved to California.  At 19, she was a teacher in common school, a job she likely held until she married in 1876. You can read more about Eunice on Jana's Genealogy and Family History Blog. 

    What drew my attention to this photo of Eunice is her curls. There are a lot of photo-identification clues in a simple cluster of curls.

    The light-eyed Eunice knew the current hair fashions. Using Pixlr.com, I created a collage of the whole photo and then pulled out some details to take a closer look.

    eunice collage.jpg

    Top right:  Eunice has very fine hair. She's curled it into wisps that frame her face. A narrow ribbon accessorizes her hair.

    Middle: The long curl is fascinating.  Is it a hairpiece or her actual hair?  Hair pieces (braids, bangs and long curls) were available to women of all economic situations. They were available in various lengths and colors. If a woman couldn't afford a human hair piece, she could get substitutes such as horse hair and yak hair.

    In the late 1860s to the early 1870s, a single long curl draped over the shoulder was very fashionable for young women. Eunice knows the hair fashions of her day.

    Bottom:  While her hair is up-to-date, her clothing is conservative and fitting for a schoolteacher. Narrow, round collars accessorized with a pin first became popular during the Civil War.  She posed for this photograph in either the late 1860s or early 1870s.  By 1870, a new style of collar was paired with those long curls: It was a stand-up collar with an open neck and a ruffle.

    Kracaw's Fine Art Gallery took this portrait. According to Carl Mautz, Biographies of Western Photographers (Carl Mautz Publishing, 1997) Kracaw's Fine Art Gallery was in business in Washington, Iowa, from 1868-1875.

    hairstyles.jpg

    You can learn more about old photo clues in all sorts of curls, as well as bangs, beards and buns, in my newly revised and expanded, all color-edition of Hairstyles, 1840-1900. It's currently on sale.



    Solve your family photo mysteries with these books by Maureen A. Taylor:

  • Family Photo Detective: Learn How to Find Genealogy Clues in Old Photos and Solve Family Photo Mysteries
  • Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats 1840-1900
  • Preserving Your Family Photographs
  • Fashionable Folks: Hairstyles 1840-1900
  • Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album



  • 1860s photos | 1870s photos | hairstyles | women
    Sunday, June 22, 2014 7:08:56 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
    # Sunday, June 15, 2014
    Mapping the Places Your Old Photos Were Taken
    Posted by Maureen

    There are so many layers to a photo identification and interpretation problem. A family photograph is a lot more than just figuring out who's in the image. Each photo tells a story.



    This image of billiard players outside a Mulhall, Okla., pool hall appeared in last week's Photo Detective Blog post, and in the in the May/June issue of Family Tree Magazine.

    In the magazine, I explored occupational clues in their attire. In the blog post, clues in the picture led to a possible identification based on the rivets in one man's chaps.

    This week it's pinpointing the location of the billiard hall. 

    Using the Sanborn Insurance Maps, a ProQuest database that's available through many libraries, I was able to locate where these men stood.

    Sanborn Insurance Maps are a wonderful resource for anyone looking for more information on a particular building.  You can view the building in context of its surroundings, learn about details in the structure such as the location of staircases, elevators and how larger businesses were heated.  Sometimes there is information on the type of building material. Often, the maps tell you what types of businesses operated in a building and sometimes with a specific business name. (Learn more about Sanborn maps and see an example here.)

    These maps are very useful when city directories aren't available for an area or when used in conjunction with city directory information.  The digital Sanborn collection covers the years 1867 to 1970. It's not comprehensive for every city/town or even every block.

    There are several maps for Mulhall in the collection, so narrowing the time frame was the first step.



    The style of the stamp box, combined with the divided design on the back of this photo postcard, dates this card to after 1907. On March 1, 1907, it became legal to include both the address and a message on the back of a postcard.

    The August 1908 Sanborn Map for Mulhall shows that a billiard hall operated at 57 Baty Street.

    mullhall billards.jpg

    According to the 1910 US census, Yeve J. Cox operated a pool hall in town. This map doesn't list the name of the pool hall's owner. It's possible that Cox appears in the photo above.

    There was a surprise on the October 1915 map of the town: The billiard hall was gone, replaced by a moving pictures establishment. At 62-1/2 Baty Street was a photographer's studio. According to Kathryn Stansbury's History of Mulhall, Oklahoma: 100 Yesteryears (Transcript Press, 1988), a  Cunningham's pool hall burned down in 1919. It's unclear if both establishments were the same business.

    This information suggests that the photograph was taken between 1907 and 1915. Given what's known about the men in the picture, it's likely closer to 1907.

    A lot has changed in Mulhall since these men posed for this portrait. Google Maps shows how many of the buildings on Baty are now gone.

    mulhall street view.jpg

    Using a combination of historical maps and modern technology brings a new layer of interpretation to Charlotte Flock's family photo.


    Solve your family photo mysteries with these books by Maureen A. Taylor:

  • Family Photo Detective: Learn How to Find Genealogy Clues in Old Photos and Solve Family Photo Mysteries
  • Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats 1840-1900
  • Preserving Your Family Photographs
  • Fashionable Folks: Hairstyles 1840-1900
  • Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album

  • 1900-1910 photos | 1910s photos | occupational | unusual photos
    Sunday, June 15, 2014 1:03:21 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
    # Sunday, June 08, 2014
    Western Pastimes: Billiards Buddies Follow-Up
    Posted by Maureen

    In the May/June 2014 issue of Family Tree Magazine is a photo of six men standing with billiard cues.



    Two of the men are Charlotte Flock's maternal and paternal grandfathers. Instead of a formal portrait, Flock's ancestors posed during a pause in their favorite pastime.

    On the far left is Ira Willard Mayfield (born Feb. 4, 1872)



    Next to him is Flock's paternal grandfather Michael Schmitt (born Sept. 12, 1871)



    Their clothing provides possible clues to their occupations. Mayfield and Schmitt were farmers. The man in the center wears dress pants and a necktie. He could be a storekeeper. 

    The man to the far right appears to be a laborer, while the man with the cigarette wears very clean chinos and a shirt.



    Their identity is currently unknown. But the man in the chaps provides a clue to his name—there are initials on his chaps, J.T.



    A search of the 1910 federal census for Mulhall Twp, Logan County, Okla., turned up a possibility. It's a really small town, so browsing the census returns using HeritageQuest online (a ProQuest database available through many libraries) didn't take very long.

    The only man with the initials J.T. was John Thompson, a grocery store owner.

    Next week I'll share new information about where that billiard hall was located.


    Solve your family photo mysteries with these books by Maureen A. Taylor:

  • Family Photo Detective: Learn How to Find Genealogy Clues in Old Photos and Solve Family Photo Mysteries
  • Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats 1840-1900
  • Preserving Your Family Photographs
  • Fashionable Folks: Hairstyles 1840-1900
  • Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album

  • 1910s photos | hats | men | occupational
    Sunday, June 08, 2014 2:12:23 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
    # Sunday, June 01, 2014
    Costumed Old-Photo Mystery
    Posted by Maureen

    Costumed ancestors in photographs often cause their descendants to wonder about the significance of that head-to-toe attire. Cheryl Jackson has one such mystery.

    jackson2.jpg

    She thinks this man is John Hardy Jackson who lived in the Paragould, Green County, area of Arkansas from approximately 1896 to 1942.

    He's part of a group that posed in American Indian attire in front of a sign for a Webster County Fair. According to Google Maps, Paragould, Ark., is about 200 miles from Webster County, Mo.

    Jackson1.jpg

    While the family thinks they have American Indian heritage, I think these men are dressed up for another reason. They could be members of the Improved Order of Red Men (IORM).

    I wrote about a similarly attired group of men from Cincinnati back in 2011.

    Could Cheryl Jackson's ancestor have been a member of the IORM? It's possible. That might be the root of the family lore relating to American Indian ancestry. A DNA test could help establish whether the family in fact has American Indian heritage.

    It's also possible that these men dressed up for another unspecified event at a fair. The poster in the background could place them in Missouri when the photo was taken, or just be an advertisement for a nearby fair.

    The man in the center with the white headdress and the crossed sticks is the leader of this group. Next week I'll examine another photo of Jackson to see if the two men are the same.


    Solve your family photo mysteries with these books by Maureen A. Taylor:

  • Family Photo Detective: Learn How to Find Genealogy Clues in Old Photos and Solve Family Photo Mysteries
  • Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats 1840-1900
  • Preserving Your Family Photographs
  • Fashionable Folks: Hairstyles 1840-1900
  • Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album

  • fraternal | men | unusual photos
    Sunday, June 01, 2014 6:59:32 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]