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# Thursday, August 28, 2008
Aunts and Uncles: Grand, Not Great
Posted by Allison

Q. Some sources say my brother's grandchildren are my grandniece and grandnephews. If that's the case, why am I called a great-aunt? What is the correct term?

A. Great-aunt or great-uncle is a lot like second cousin: It’s common practice for people to call their grandparents’ siblings by these terms, just as they often refer to first cousins’ children as second cousins—but neither is technically correct. As you noted, the proper term for your relationship to your brother’s grandchildren is grandaunt, just like grandparent. Grand means that the relatives in question are two generations removed from one another.

So aunts and uncles follow the same pattern as parents as you tack on generations:

parentaunt/uncle
grandparent grandaunt/granduncle
great-grandparentgreat-grandaunt/great-granduncle
great-great-grandparent 
great-great-grandaunt/great-great-granduncle

And so on. “It’s a mistake to lump [grandaunts and granduncles] in with the greats,” says Jackie Smith Arnold in Kinship: It’s All Relative, 2nd edition (Genealogical Publishing Co.). “Mixing the generations causes confusion.” That may be the case, but given the widespread misusage of great-aunt, grandaunt might not be any clearer to your relatives. Having your grandnephews call you that certainly doesn’t hurt anything—it’s up to you whether you want to correct them.

In case you’re still wondering about cousins: Your first cousins’ children would be your first cousins once removed. See our article "Cousin Confusion."

genealogy basics | Relationships
Thursday, August 28, 2008 3:14:33 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [2]
# Wednesday, August 20, 2008
When You Think You're German, But You Aren't
Posted by Diane

Q. I’ve made little headway in 30 years of researching my Hondlenk line. I was under the assumption Hondlenk is a German name, but a friend went to Germany and asked everyone about it. Germans told her the name is probably Dutch or Danish. Now I don’t know what nationality it is.

A. From the genealogical material you sent, it looks like the source for your assumption is John Hondlenk’s listing in the 1860 Louisiana mortality schedule,  with the place of birth as Germany. (Census mortality schedules, in case readers are wondering, list those who died the year before the census was taken. The schedules exist for the 1850 through 1880 censuses.)

You don’t give John Hondlenk's birth year, but what “Germany” means has changed throughout history. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Germany—then a group of states, the largest being Prussia—covered much of Central Europe. Various wars and treaties led it to gain and lose territory to surrounding countries.

Germany as a nation didn’t exist until 1871. Its changing boundaries resulted in many Germans living outside the borders of Germany, and many non-Germans living inside Germany. John Hondlenk may have been born in Germany without being German, and his birthplace may or may not be in today's Germany. See the December 2006 Family Tree Magazine for help sorting out these boundary changes and population movements.

Surnames aren’t fixed through history, either. Your ancestor’s original surname might not be Hondlenk, but a variation or something completely different. After arriving in America, it wasn’t uncommon for immigrants to change their names or alter the spelling to sound more “American.” Our writer Nancy Hendrickson, who wrote about researching surnames in the May 2008 Family Tree Magazine, says she always assumed her Shore family was from Britain, but she later learned Shore is a variation of the Swiss Schorr.

Something else to keep in mind: The birthplace in the mortality schedule might be wrong. Someone may have provided the census taker with the wrong information, or the census taker may have misheard. Or perhaps your ancestor lived in Germany, or left for America from a German port, but wasn’t born there.

Just for kicks, I looked up Hondlenk in Ancestry.com’s free search tool for surname origins, but didn’t find anything.

Focus less on determining the nationality of the name, and instead try to find John Hondlenk’s town or parish of origin—information you’ll need to research him in Europe. Keep plugging away on this side of the pond: Research his relatives and neighbors; look for church, court and other less-often-consulted records; and try to connect with other Hondlenks on surname boards such as GenForum’s.

If any readers have come across Hondlenks in their genealogy search, click Comment and pipe up.


German roots | Surnames
Wednesday, August 20, 2008 7:41:57 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [5]
# Thursday, August 07, 2008
Recording Nontraditional Family Trees
Posted by Diane

Q. A member of FamilyTreeMagazine.com Forum asked "I'm confused. Do I put the names of divorced relatives on a family tree chart if they have biological children on the chart? If the descendant remarried and had children with another spouse, do I list them separately with the descendant?"

A. The answer depends whether you’re putting together a family tree for research purposes or for another reason, such as a decorative display.

For genealogy research, you’d record all this information, but not on one chart. On your five-generation ancestor chart, you record only your biological ancestors—parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc. No aunts, uncles, cousins or siblings. Spouses or partners who aren’t your ancestors aren’t listed, either.

That means you’d put your mom’s biological parents on a five-generation chart even if they divorced and remarried other people. Also, because no siblings are listed on a five-generation chart, you don’t have to worry about any half- or step siblings your mom may have.

You’ll record siblings and other spouses on a family group sheet (also available on FamilyTreeMagazine.com) for each family. Here, you write the parents and children of a nuclear family; this form also has spaces to name each parent’s previous or subsequent spouses. If your grandmother was widowed before she met your grandfather, you’d make two family group sheets for her: One for your grandmother with her first husband and their children, and another for your grandmother with your grandfather and their children.

You may be thinking that five-generation charts aren’t very adaptable to blended, adoptive and other nontraditional families. In a purely genealogical sense, ancestors are biological parents, grandparents, etc., whether or not they lived with their children. But if you want to trace your adoptive or step family, you can find charts designed for nontraditional families, such as our adoptive family tree. You also can record people on a traditional five-generation chart, though we recommend clearly indicating the step or adoptive relationships.

If you’re filling out a decorative family tree for display or a baby book, rather than one for your personal research, how you handle relationships is really up to you. We do recommend that to prevent confusion for future family historians, you indicate relationships clearly and/or also keep a five-generation pedigree chart with biological relationships.

If you’re designing your own tree, you can use dashed or colored lines (similar to those on a type of family map called a genogram) to indicate various types of relationships.


genealogy basics
Thursday, August 07, 2008 1:55:39 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]