Free Updates

Let us tell you when new posts are added!

Email:

Navigation

Categories

Search

Archives

<December 2014>
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
30123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031123
45678910

More Links










# Friday, September 21, 2007
Convicts and Indentured Servitude
Posted by Diane

Q My fifth-great-grandfather Nathaniel Tenpenny was convicted of a crime in England in 1764 and sentenced to seven years of indentured servitude in America. He was transported aboard the Tryal the same year. He’s in the 1790 Rowan County, NC, census with his family, but I haven’t been able to find out their names or anything else about him.

A An indentured servant was “bound” to a property owner in exchange for passage to America. Many people indentured themselves. Your ancestor was part of a popular criminal justice trend in England: Punishment by "transportation," or exile to work in America (after the Revolutionary War, Australia became the primary destination).

After England passed the Transportation Act in 1718, courts there sent approximately 60,000 convicts—called "the King's passengers"—to America.

It sounds like you found the information on Nathaniel Tenpenny’s conviction for stealing tools online at The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, London, 1674 to 1834. That site has accounts of more than 100,000 trials at London's central criminal court.

Look for your ancestor’s name in two books by Peter Wilson Coldham:
The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775 and Emigrants in Chains, 1607-1776. Both are $45 from Clearfield Co. You may learn the port where his ship arrived and other details, giving you a starting point.

There’s a good chance your ancestor served his sentence in Maryland or Virginia. According to a 2004 NPR report, 90 percent of the King’s Passengers served their sentences in Maryland and Virginia.

Laws governed indentured servitude (servants who tried to run away or became pregnant, for example, might have their contracts extended), so look for contracts and other documents among court records where your ancestor served. If you learn whom he was indentured to, check the local historical society and university archives for collections of personal papers—they may mention Nathaniel.

To narrow Nathaniel's place of service, research him backward from his most recent known location—North Carolina in the 1790 census. Look for Colonial censuses, land and tax records. Presumably Nathaniel would've been released in the early 1770s. Could he have returned to England temporarily? Stayed in America and fought in the Revolutionary War?

Look for his will, too, which would likely give the names of his children and wife. For additional resources, see the Colonial research article in the February 2006 Family Tree Magazine.

To learn more about prisoners and indentured servants, explore these sites:


black sheep ancestors | court records | immigration
Friday, September 21, 2007 9:31:50 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
# Tuesday, September 11, 2007
How Are We Related?
Posted by Diane

Q One of the most frequent questions we receive is “How is my [fill in family member] related to my [fill in family member]?” This week, we’ll help you figure out those familial relationships.

A The key to figuring out how two relatives are related is to trace back to the most recent ancestor they share. For example:

    * first cousins share grandparents
    * second cousins share great-grandparents
    * third cousins share great-great-grandparents

... and so on. But it gets confusing when you start mixing generations—that’s where “removeds” come in. Draw a picture if you have to. For example, say Mark is my sister Sue's son and John is my cousin. This shows Edna is their most recent common ancestor:
Then, figure out how each person is related to the common ancestor. Edna is John’s grandmother and Mark’s great-grandmother.

Then you're ready to use a relationship chart (click to download ours, which goes up to sixth-great-grandparents, as a PDF) or an online tool to figure out the relationship.

To use a chart, look at the top row and pick out one descendant’s relationship to the common ancestor (Mark’s is highlighted in blue in the example below). In the left column, find the relationship for the other descendant (John's is red). Look where the row and column meet: The lavender square shows the boys are first cousins, once removed:



Fortunately, you also can use an online “cousin calculator” such as this one to do the same thing. Just select the relationship of each person to the common ancestor, and you’ll see how they’re related.



Tuesday, September 11, 2007 4:54:11 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]
How Are We Related Again?
Posted by Diane

Q One of the most frequent questions we receive is “How is my [fill in family member] related to my [fill in family member]?” This week, we’ll help you figure out those familial relationships.

A The key to figuring out how two relatives are related is to trace back to the most recent ancestor they share. For example:

    * first cousins share grandparents
    * second cousins share great-grandparents
    * third cousins share great-great-grandparents

... and so on. But it gets confusing when you start mixing generations—that’s where “removeds” come in. Draw a picture if you have to. For example, say Mark is my sister Sue's son and John is my cousin. This shows Edna is their most recent common ancestor:

Then, figure out how each person is related to the common ancestor. Edna is John’s grandmother and Mark’s great-grandmother.

Then you're ready to use a relationship chart (click to download ours, which goes up to sixth-great-grandparents, as a PDF) or an online tool to figure out the relationship.

To use a chart, look at the top row and pick out one descendant’s relationship to the common ancestor (Mark’s is highlighted in blue in the example below). In the left column, find the relationship for the other descendant (John's is red). Look where the row and column meet: The lavender square shows the boys are first cousins, once removed:



Fortunately, you also can use an online “cousin calculator” such as this one to do the same thing. Just select the relationship of each person to the common ancestor, and you’ll see how they’re related.



Tuesday, September 11, 2007 4:33:03 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #  Comments [0]